EPUB EBook by Herbert Marcuse
EBook DescriptionCursory summation of classical Marxism and the revisions of the Second International, then detailed examinations of doctrine in Leninist, Stalinist, and Khrushchev periods. Soviet Marxism EPUB EBook
Opens with “the formation of Soviet Marxist theory proceeds on the basis of Lenin’s interpretation of Marxism, without going back to original Marxian theory” (25).The characteristic feature of this revision is “the shift in the revolutionary agent from the class- EPUBconscious proletariat to the centralized party as the avant garde of the proletariat and the emphasis on the role of the peasantry as ally of the proletariat, developed under the impact of the sustained strength of capitalism at the ‘imperialist stage’” (id.).In the initial period of 1917, the Bolsheviks had an “almost desperate orientation toward Germany” (30).When the German left was destroyed and its revolution a failure, the Leninists were forced to re-evaluate doctrine to co-exist with the stronger capitalist world, which appeared to be stabilizing, as well as fostering “the developing revolutionary movement in the colonial and semi colonial countries as more than a mere ‘reserve’ for the revolutionary army” (id.).
The Leninist geopolitical dialectic apprehended two contradictions: intracapitalist and capitalist v. socialist; download; the former is what would grant the soviets some reprieve in the latter, whichwas made manifest in the cappy intervention into the civil war, an event that soured the soviets basically forever on western liberalism (irrespective of whether MacMillan is correct in Paris 1919 that the cappies just kind of blundered into intervention).
Basic principles of soviet Marxism that remained constant:total industrialization, progressive collectivization, general mechanization, gradual rise in standard of living, construction of work morale, preservation of the state,and transition to the meeting of individual needs after the first five principles are satisfied (63-64).
After reaching advanced industrialism, the “transition to communism” might begin, involving some nifty dialectical reasoning (64-65).
Marcuse describes SM’s “pragmatic directives for action”:SM “is built around a small number of constantly recurring and rigidly canonized statements to the effect that Soviet society is a socialist society without exploitation, a full democracy in which the constitutional rights of all citizens are guaranteed and enforced; or, on the other side, that present-day capitalism exists in a state of sharpening class struggle, depressed living standards, unemployment, and so forth.Thus formulated and taken by themselves, these statements are obviously false—according to Marxian and as well as non-Marxian criteria.But within the context in which they appear, their falsity does not invalidate them, for, to Soviet Marxism, their verification is not in the given facts, but in ‘tendencies,’ in a historical process in which the commanded political practice will bring about the desired facts” (71).
Will not belabor the transformations in the later periods any further, except to point out that the internal is typically in dialectical relation with the external, which, after WWII, means vis-à-vis the actions of the United States.Plenty of aesthetic and ethics commentary, as well as author’s well known interest in Freud.This review is pathetic; the book kicks ass.
Recommended for those with an almost desperate orientation toward Germany,persons with an interest in the ideology that becomes the last refuge for opposition, andreaders who understand that Antigone is right against Creon as Creon is right against Antigone.
Like this book? Read online this: External Intervention and the Politics of State Formation, Is There A Future For Marxism?.
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